List of Figures

A The Business of Learning Pyramid 4
1.1 The Language of Business 17
1.2 Career Success Requires Increasing Fluency in the Language of Business 20
1.3 Example of Mission and Vision Statements, Strategies, and Goals 23
2.1 How Learning Impacts Performance 74
2.2 Framework for Making the Business Case for Learning 76
2.3 Decision Tree to Provide Learning 86
2.4 Steps in the Creation of the Business Plan for Learning 90
3.1 Typical Organizational Structure for a Program-Based Corporate University 104
3.2 Typical Organizational Structure for a Functional-Based Corporate University 104
3.3 Enterprise Program Costs (pie chart 109
3.4 Enterprise Program Costs (stacked bar chart) 111
3.5 Work Sheet for Calculating Opportunity Costs 123
4.1 The Five Steps of Strategic Alignment 134
4.2 Description of the Strategic Alignment Process 156
5.1 The Seven-Step Process to Create a Business Case 189
6.1 Essential Chapters in Your First Business Plan for Learning 206
6.2 Chapters in a Mature Business Plan for Learning 213
6.3 Steps in the Creation of the Business Plan for Learning 216
6.4 Timetable for Creation of a Business Plan for Learning in a Smaller Organization 223
6.5 Timetable for Creation of a Business Plan for a Larger Organization 224
7.1 Sample Agenda for a Board Meeting 245
7.2 Board of Governors 247
7.3 Sample Agenda for a Board of Governors Meeting 248
7.4 Enterprise Learning Council 250
7.5 Sample Agenda for an Enterprise Learning Council Meeting 251
7.6 Enterprise Program Board 253
7.7 Sample Agenda for an Enterprise Program (Marketing) Board Meeting 254
7.8 Business Unit or Division Learning Council 256
7.9 Sample Agenda for a Business Unit Learning Council Meeting 256
8.1 The Four Measurement Levels of Kirkpatrick and Phillips 264
8.2 Sample Level 1 Questions 266
8.3 Example of a Normal Distribution 282
9.1 Goals for the Parties Involved in Plan Execution 303
10.1 Fixed, Variable, and Total Costs for a Representative Firm 340
10.2 Marginal and Average Cost Curves for a Representative Firm 341
10.3 The Profit Maximizing Level of Output for a Representative Firm 343
10.4 Comparison of the Firm and Learning Function 347
10.5 Marginal Cost for a Typical Course 349
10.6 Marginal Gross Benefit for a Typical Course 350
10.7 Three Scenarios for Determining the Optimum Size for a Course 352
10.8 Ranking of Subgroups by Expected Impact 353
10.9 Example of Decreasing Marginal Returns 360
10.10 Example of Increasing Marginal Returns 362
10.11 Example of Constant Marginal Returns 363
10.12 Example of Mixed Marginal Returns 364
11.1 Marginal and Average Cost Curves for a Representative Firm 378
11.2 Graphs of Development, Instructor, and Materials Costs 380
11.3 Marginal and Average Cost Curves for Table 11.2 385
11.4 Marginal and Average Cost Curves for Table 11.3 388
11.5 Marginal and Average Cost Curves for Table 11.5 392
11.6 Smoothed Cost Curves for a Typical Course with Increasing Marginal Costs 393
11.7 Calculation of Average Cost for a Typical Course 396
12.1 Characteristics of a Centralized Model 426
12.2 Characteristics of a Decentralized Model 427
12.3 Roles and Responsibilities in a Hybrid Model 429
12.4 Choosing the Best Structure 432
12.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Corporate Funding Model 436
12.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Allocation Funding Model 438
12.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Discretionary Funding Model 440
12.8 A Sample Mixed Model for Funding 444
13.1 Key Elements of Managing Learning Like a Business 454
13.2 Checklist for Running Learning Like a Business 456
13.3 The Journey 461


Appendix B

1 Description of the Strategic Alignment Process 480
2 Strategic Alignment of Learning to the Organization’s Goals 481